The history of Central Asia refers to the history of the various peoples who inhabited Central Asia. The lifestyle of such people was primarily determined by the region's climate and geography. The aridity of the region makes agriculture difficult and the distance from the sea cut it off from a lot of trade. Thus, several large cities are developed in the region. The nomadic horses of the steppe peoples have dominated the area for millennia.
The relationship between steppe nomads and sedentary peoples in and around Central Asia has been marked by conflict. The nomadic lifestyle was well suited for warfare, and the steppe riders became some of the most militarily powerful people in the world, due to the destructive methods and ability of their horse archers. Periodically, tribal chiefs or changing conditions will organize several tribes into a single military force, which will then often launch campaigns of conquest, especially in more "civilized" areas. Some of these types of tribal coalitions included the Huns' invasion of Europe, various Turkic migrations to Maverannahr, the X attack on China, and most notably the Mongol conquest of most of Eurasia.
Nomad rule ended in the 16th century, as firearms were allowed to settle people to gain control of the region.
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